Creation of safe working conditions by the employer, i.e. conditions in which the impact of hazardous and harmful production factors on the workers is excluded.
Systematic analysis of the causes (technical, organizational, personal) of the occupational injury occurrences, the immediate adoption of measures to eliminate them and prevent them are among the most important conditions for eradicating occupational injuries or its minimizing.
Qualified provision of the following safety briefings for employees:
Induction briefing is provided for employees who first entered the enterprise and students sent for industrial practice. The induction briefing introduces the safety rules, the internal regulations of the enterprise, the main causes of accidents and the procedure for providing first aid in case of an accident.
Primary on-the-job briefing is provided for employees newly hired at enterprise or transferred to another place of work, and students undergoing industrial practice.
Periodic (repeated) briefing is carried out to test the knowledge and ability of employees to apply the skills they acquired during the induction briefing and at the workplace. This type of instruction must be passed by employees of trade and public catering spheres (at least once every six months) and employees of manufacturing enterprises (at least once every three months) regardless of qualifications and length of service.
Unscheduled briefing is carried out at the workplace when replacing equipment, changing the technological process or after accidents due to insufficient previous briefing.
Current briefing is carried out after violations of safety rules and instructions are detected or when performing work on admission and|or order.
Individual morale building work with persons who are potential violators of safety measures due to subjective reasons.
All these measures will help to avoid occupational injuries or to minimize them.
Traumatism occupies the leading place in the morbidity structure. It is one of the main causes of primary disability and mortality in adults and children. About 800 thousand people are injured in the Republic of Belarus every year, about 120 thousand of them are children. According to the Republican Scientific and Practical Center for Traumatology and Orthopedics, the following types of injuries prevail in the structure of traumatism: domestic traumas – 56.1%, street – 17.5%, children – 16.5%, sports – 6.8%, occupational – 1.3%, road and transport – 1.8%. Although, at first glance, occupational injuries are not the most large-scale in the structure of traumatism, they cover about 10.5 thousand of the most capable part of the population and cause great material, physical and moral damage.
What is an occupational injury?
Occupational injury is a sudden injury that occurs when performing work or being at enterprises (at institutions). Occupational injury entails a violation of the tissues integrity, the correct functioning of individual organs and the loss of working capacity for some time.
Recurrence of occupational accidents is called traumatism.
Types of occupational injuries (accidents)
Accidents are divided into:
By the number of victims:
- - single (one person was injured);
- - group (two or more people were injured at the same time);
- light (incisions, scratches, abrasions);
- severe (bone fractures, concussion);
- fatal (victim dies)
Depending on the circumstances:
- - related to occupation;
- - not related to occupation, but related to work;
- - domestic accidents.
Non-occupational accidents can be classified as work-related accidents or domestic accidents. An accident is recognized as work-related if it occurred while performing any actions in the interests of the enterprise outside of it (on the way to or from work), while performing state or public duties, while performing the duty of a citizen of the Republic of Belarus to save human life, etc.
By reasons that caused injury: mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical.
By nature: wounds, bruises, bone fractures, dislocations, thermal and chemical burns, foreign bodies into the eyes.
Many of the above types of injuries are associated with the formation of an open wound. Various infections can enter through the wound and cause an inflammatory process, up to suppuration. Pustular diseases are the most common complication of injuries. This is especially true for minor injuries, that is, microtraumas (scratches, abrasions, minor cuts, incisions, etc.), when the victims do not pay them serious attention and do not seek medical help. By continuing to work with an open wound, employees contaminate it, and this contributes to a faster and more intense infection.
Causes of occupational injuries
The causes of occupational injuries can be roughly divided into three categories:
- Technical – in most cases, they manifest themselves as a result of design weaknein equipment, insufficient lighting, malfunctioning protective equipment and devices, etc. The latter applies, first of all, to all rotating and moving components and assemblies of equipment, as well as to parts of equipment that are energized (terminals, switches, low-insulated wires, etc.), containers with strong substances, hot surfaces, etc.
- Organizational – non-observance of safety rules due to unpreparedness of employees. Poor work organization, lack of proper control over the production process, etc.
- Personal (human factor) – features of the employee’s character and propensities, his attitude to his own health and strict implementation of all safety measures at work.
All of the above reasons are a kind of general reasons that cause injuries. Most often the immediate factors of injury are: falling of the employee from a height, falling of heavy objects, parts, fragments or tools flying off, putting a hand or other parts of the body into mechanisms or other moving equipment, hitting the arm, leg or other body parts with the tools, eye contact with dust, small fragments, etc., hot sparks flying off, contact with hot surfaces or liquids, live conductors, corrosive liquids and other substances.
Provision of medical care in case of occupational injury
It depends on the severity of the injury and the state of the injured person. The actions of eyewitnesses of occupational injury can be roughly divided into three main stages.
The first stage – assistance at the place of the incident, which can be provided by health workers (for example, a medical assistant of a first-aid station, if the injury occurred on the territory of the enterprise) or people who do not have special medical skills, including the victim himself.
The second stage – the transportation of the victim to a medical institution (if necessary). The main requirements for it are speed and provision of optimal conditions for the victim.
The third stage – the treatment of a victim in a specialized hospital department or outpatient clinic institution.
of the 4th City Clinical Hospital
named after M. Saŭčanka U. Čarnoŭ
The material is based on information from open sources