7 December 2020

What is coronavirus and how does infection occur?

Coronavirus (COVID-19) – respiratory virus. It is transmitted mainly through airborne droplets  in the result of inhalation of droplets released from the patient's respiratory tract, for example, when coughing or sneezing, as well as drops of saliva or nasal discharge. Also it can spread when a sick touches any contaminated surfaces, for example a door handle. In this case infection occurs when touching a mouth, nose or eye with dirty hands.

What are the symptoms of coronavirus?

The main symptoms coronavirus are:

  • High temperature;
  • shortness of breath;
  • sneezing, coughing and nasal congestion;
  • pain in muscles and in breast;
  • headache and weakness;
  • nausea, vomiting and diarrhea are possible.

 In the vast majority of cases these symptoms are connected not with coronavirus, but with typical ARVI.

Stay at home and contact a doctor if:

  • you contacted with patient infected with COVID-19;
  • you returned from countrу where goes disease outbreak;
  • you have increased temperature, cough and shortness of breath;
  • you lost sense of smell and/or taste.

How is coronavirus transmitted?

Ways of transmission:

  • Airborne (virus isolation occurs when coughing, sneezing, talking);
  • Contact-household (through subjects of use)

What are the activities to prevent coronavirus?

  • Wash hands
  • Always wash your hands: when coming to work or return home. For prevention, wet napkins or disinfectants solutions can be used.
  • Avoid large crowds of people
  • Avoid unnecessary travel and do not visit crowded places.
  • Do not touch your face 
  • Do not put hands to your nose or eyes. The virus enters the body most quickly through the mucous membrane. When you sneeze, always cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief.
  • Cancel your trips
  • While different countries around the world are fighting the coronavirus, you should not travel abroad. Especially where the situation with the coronavirus is extremely difficult. 

Do masks help with infectious diseases? And how to wear a mask properly?

Using a disposable medical mask reduces the risk of viral infections that are transmitted by airborne droplets (coughing, sneezing).

How to wear mask properly:

Masks may have different make-up. They can be of single-use or can be used multiple times. There are masks that serve for 2, 4, 6 hours. The cost of these masks is different due to different impregnation. But you can't always wear the same mask, doing so you can infect yourself twice. Which side to wear a sanitary-hygienic (medical) mask is unprincipled.

To secure yourself from infection, it is extremely important to wear it properly:

  • the usual sanitary-hygienic (medical) mask must be changed every 2 hours;
  • the mask should be carefully fixed, tightly cover the mouth and nose;
  • try not to touch the surface of the mask when putting it off, if you have touched it, wash your hands thoroughly with soap or sanitized with alcohol;
  • a wet or damp mask should be replaced with a new, dry one;
  • do not use a disposable mask again;
  • the used disposable mask should be disposed of immediately.

When caring for a sick, after the end of a contact with him, the mask should be immediately removed. After removing a mask it is necessary immediately and carefully wash hands or sanitize with alcohol.

A mask is necessary if you are in a crowded place, in public transport, and also when caring for  a sick, but it is impractical in the open air.

While you are outside, it is useful to breathe fresh air and you should not wear a mask. However, we remind you that this single measure does not provide complete protection against the disease. In addition to wearing a mask, you must follow other preventive measures.

In what period of time can the symptoms of a new coronavirus infection appear?

Symptoms may appear within 10 days after contact with a sick person.

What are the possible complications of a coronavirus infection?

Viral pneumonia is the leading cause of complications. With viral pneumonia the deterioration of condition is rapid, and respiratory failure requiring immediate respiratory support with mechanical ventilation is developed in many patients within 24 hours. Quickly initiated treatment helps to alleviate the severity of the disease.

What to do if someone in the family is sick with ARVI?

  • Call a doctor.
  • Give the sick a separate room in the house. If this is impossible, keep a distance of at least 1 meter from the patient.
  • Limit to a minimum contact between the sick and family, especially children, the elderly, and people suffering from chronic diseases.
  • Ventilate the room frequently. Keep clean, sanitize surfaces with household detergents as often as possible.
  • Wash your hands frequently with soap.
  • When caring for the sick, cover the mouth and nose with individual protective means for respiratory organs (mask, respirator). If possible, only one family member should take care of the sick.

Why is it necessary to be isolated?

If you have returned from abroad or have been in contact with a sick person, you should observe a quarantine at home for 10 days. This is necessary in order not to spread the infection.

If you were abroad with friends or family, you can observe a joint quarantine for 10 days in the same room or apartment.

Why does the quarantine last 10 days?

During these 10 days, you can infect other people, so it is important to isolate yourself for all 10 days.

What does it mean to be isolated at home ?

The main condition is not to leave the house for all 10 days, even to buy food and medicine, receive parcels, pay for utilities, and take out garbage.

It is very important to limit contacts with your family members and other people. If the contact with other people occurs, it is necessary to wear individual protective means for respiratory organs (mask, respirator).

During quarantine, you should:

  • wash hands with soap and water before eating, before contact with the mucous membranes of the eyes, mouth, nose, after using the toilet;
  • regularly ventilate the room and perform wet cleaning using household chemicals.

You should buy food and goods online or with the help of volunteers.

Household garbage should be packed in double strong garbage bags, tightly closed and put outside the apartment. You can ask friends, acquaintances, or volunteers to dispose of this garbage.

If you live in an apartment or in a house with other people, if possible, stay in a separate room. Use separate crockery and cutlery, linens, and towels.

What to do while in quarantine?

How to keep in touch with family and friends during quarantine?

You can communicate with relatives and friends by phone or using any other means of communication.

What to do if there are signs of the disease?

Do not panic, stay calm and immediately report it to the polyclinic without leaving your home.

How is medical monitoring performed during quarantine?

If the symptoms of ARVI (fever, sore throat, nasal congestion, cough, etc.) appeared, you should seek medical help in a polyclinic. On the 7th day of self-isolation, a smear is taken from the nose and throat, or on the 9th day, rapid testing for the presence of COVID-19 antibodies is performed.

How do I know that the quarantine is over?

Home quarantine ends after 10 days of isolation if there are no signs of illness.

Remember that by observing quarantine, you are taking care of your family and others, as well as helping to stop the epidemic in the country!

Where can I get tested for coronavirus (for the presence of antibodies)?

Rapid tests for COVID-19 antibodies (IgM and IgG class immunochromatography method) are performed on a paid basis in healthcare institutions and specialized laboratories.

PCR diagnostics is performed in a healthcare institution at the place of medical care provision, according to the patient's clinical indications at the discretion of the attending doctor. Repeated laboratory diagnostics are not performed.

Reference: PCR diagnostics (polymerase chain reaction) is a highly accurate method for diagnosing multiple infections, which is based on the study of human genetic material.

If you feel unwell or are sick with signs of ARVI (high temperature, cough, runny nose, etc.), what should you do? Where to apply?

Stay at home and call a doctor at home by phone numbers of the local polyclinic registry.

If you suspect a coronavirus infection, the doctor will send a team to your home to examine you, take a smear, give recommendations for treatment, and decide whether to be released from work and school. Follow your doctor's instructions and keep the bed and water-intake regime.

What should you do if you get a positive PCR result?

If a positive PCR is detected, you must follow the recommendations for self-isolation (requirements are given when taking a smear).

It is necessary to inform the polyclinic (outpatient clinic) that you have a positive PCR result (call the phone number of the registry or call a doctor at home and pass information about yourself).

You have a positive PCR result and you are provided medical care on the application, actually live in the service area of another polyclinic. Where to apply next?

When taking the smear, be sure to provide the address of the actual residence (stay). After receiving information about a positive PCR result, you must:

  • comply with the requirements of isolation;
  • inform the polyclinic (outpatient polyclinic) at your place of residence that you have a positive PCR result (call by phone of the registration or a doctor at home and send information about yourself).

After receiving the information, medical workers will contact you and provide the necessary assistance.

What should the people who have contact, live, work, etc. with a person who has a positive PCR result do? Who should I consider a first-level contact?

When registering a case of COVID-19 infection established in accordance with the clinical and laboratory criteria for establishing the diagnosis of COVID-19 infection, specialists of the territorial centers of hygiene and epidemiology carry out:

  • collection (including by phone) of an epidemiological history of a COVID-19 patient for the organization and implementation of a complex of sanitary and anti-epidemic measures, including:
  • identifying of the boundaries of the focus; clarifying the route of movement of the patient; eliminating the circle of people related to contacts of the 1st and 2nd levels (at the place of stay, work, study, leisure, etc.);
  • identifying the probable source of infection and (or) the probable place of infection (public transport, public catering, trade, etc.);
  • determining the scope of disinfection measures.
  • informing persons assigned to a first-level contact about the need for self-isolation, with an emphasis on its organization in conditions of cohabitation with other persons.