10 August 2020

PROPER NUTRITION IS THE KEY TO HEALTH AND BEAUTY (August 15, 2020 – Healthy nutrition day)

 

Doctor and philosopher Hippocrates came to the idea that body diseases occur due to nutrition disorders.

Many people are interested in the question of how to eat properly thanks to the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, an integral part of which is proper (healthy) nutrition. The basic principles of healthy nutrition should be laid down from childhood and implemented throughout life.

Unfortunately, there is a growing number of overweight and obese people in our country. This problem is most relevant for children and young people since almost 30% of the population suffer from overweight and obesity, half of them are under 18 years of age. Just 15-20 years ago obesity was rare among children aged five. Now this is a very common phenomenon.

The most common cause of this situation is banal overeating due to established habits in the family. Quite often parents overfeed the child, offering him or her portions that exceed the age limit, as well as giving preference to the use of semi-finished products or fast food in the diet. A similar situation is often observed in the nutrition of schoolchildren and students who refuse organized meals in school and student canteens, prefer chips, hot dogs and sweet fizzy drinks. Quite often children, as well as adults, «overeat» problems related to education, relationships in the family and the collective. One in four children is overweight, and one in eight is obese.

 

Let's focus on the basic principles of proper (healthy) nutrition:

1. The daily diet should contain a sufficient amount of protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The amount of protein in the diet should correspond to the physiological norm – 1-1,5 g per 1 kg of weight. Animal protein should be at least 60% of the daily amount of protein (lean meat, fish, eggs, milk and dairy products in the diet is mandatory).

2. The optimal amount of fat is 0,8-1,0 g per 1 kg of weight per day. Fats stay longer in the stomach, reduce the excitability of the brain, eliminating the feeling of hunger. Vegetable fats increase the activity of enzymes that stimulate the breakdown of fat in the body. Vegetable oils for cooking and adding to salads should amount 30-35% of the total amount of fat in the diet.

3. It is advisable to limit the number of carbohydrates to 3-3,5 g per 1 kg of weight per day, primarily for the cost of simple carbohydrates: sugar, sweets.

4. The number of meals during the day is at least 4-5 times (3 main meals and 2 additional ones, represented by fresh fruits and vegetables, preferably in raw form). The main caloric content of the diet should fall in the first half of the day.

5. Intervals between meals should not exceed 3.5-4 hours.

6. The amount of free liquid is not less than 1,5 liters per day (if there are no contraindications). It is better to drink and use bottled or filtered water for cooking. For drinking, you can use mineral still water with the lowest degree of mineralization, freshly squeezed juices, tea, coffee. It is better not to drink coffee on an empty stomach, it is desirable not to use green tea, karkade tea, coffee, juices from sour fruits after 6 p.m.

7. It is advisable to drink a glass of liquid at room temperature on an empty stomach in the morning. The interval between the last intake of liquid and meal should be 20-30 minutes, between meal and subsequent intake of liquid – at least 30 minutes. The optimal ratio between the solid and liquid parts of food during one meal should be at least 2:1.

8. The last meal is 2.5-3 hours before bedtime.

9. Eat slowly, chewing food carefully, and get up from the table as soon as you feel satiation, not when you are ready to burst.

10. Try to avoid combinations of protein products (meat, poultry, fish, seafood) and products rich in carbohydrates (cereals, bread, bran, potatoes, sweet fruits and berries) in one dish.

11. Limit salt intake to 5 g per day.

12. Nutrition should be as varied as possible. There is a sufficient number of enzymes in the human gastrointestinal tract that can break down various products.

13. Avoid multi-component dishes. Do not mix more than 3-4 types of products at a time (except spices and vegetable oil).

14. Vegetables that contain pectin and fiber are especially useful. They create a sense of satiety, regulate intestine function and remove waste products. These include cabbage, zucchini, radishes, tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkins and leafy greens.

15. Vegetables can be eaten raw, stewed, boiled, steamed or grilled. Fresh vegetables are preferable to eat with vegetable oil (sunflower, olive, linseed). When boiling vegetables, water should not completely cover its surface. It is better to add salt, vegetable oil and natural spices at the final stage of cooking.

16. Meat, poultry and fish can be baked, steamed or grilled. It is better to eat these products with a vegetable side dish. It is advisable not to eat the skin of poultry and fish.

17. Cooking methods (in quality descending): grill (air grill, microwave grill, barbecue, brazier); steamed food; food baked in the oven; salted; dried; boiled; stewed.

18. Bread, preferably protein, grain, with bran, must be in the diet.

19. Sauces are better homemade with vegetables, spices – natural: bay leaf, peppers, parsley, coriander, celery, cloves, cumin, garlic, dill, ginger.

Proper nutrition is the key not only to health but also to natural beauty: clean skin, a toned, slender body, shiny hair and natural blush. Observing proper nutrition, you will preserve your health and beauty.

 

Valeologist of the 4th City Clinical Hospital named after M. Saŭčanka      U. Čarnoŭ

The material is based on information from open sources